The nature of motivation:
Being able to effectively motivate employees is a challenge that managers
face in all types and sizes of
organizations. “Everything that we give
to our workers gets returned to us in
terms of efficiency, quality, loyalty,
is the willingness to exert high levels of
effort to reach organizational goals,
conditioned by the effort’s ability to
satisfy some individual need.
A. Effort is a measure of intensity or
drive. High levels of effort are
unlikely to lead to favorable job
performance unless the effort is
channeled in a direction that benefits
B. A need is an internal state
that makes certain outcomes appear
attractive. An unsatisfied need creates
tension that stimulates drives within an
individual. These drives generate a
search behavior to find particular goals
that, if attained, will satisfy the need
and reduce the tension.
is the force that energizes behavior, gives
direction to behavior, and underlies the
tendency to persist.
A person’s motivation is not directly measurable, but must be
inferred from behavior.
Performance is a function of ability, motivation and working
Besides hiring individual with ability to do the work,
managers have the challenge to provide
working conditions that nurture and
support individual motivation to work
toward organization goals.
The main elements of motivation have been identified based on numerous
studies. A simplified model of
motivation has been developed.
Inner needs and cognitions lead to behaviors.
Appropriate behaviors may result in rewards, which reinforce
the behaviors, fulfill needs, and
provide cognitive input regarding the
future association of behaviors and
Lack of rewards may lead to unfulfilled needs, un-reinforced
behaviors, and cognitive input in the
form of expectations about the future.
A person’s internal desire to do some thing for his satisfaction,
respect, prestige or loyalty.
Factors of motivation that comes from outside (environment) or
organization like pay, bonuses, tangible
Suggestions for motivating employees:
Several suggestions for motivating employees are given and are based on
what is currently known about
Recognize individual differences in terms of needs,
attitudes, personality, and other
important individual factors.
Match people to jobs by identifying what needs are important
to individuals and trying to provide
jobs that allow them to fulfill those
Use goals because the literature on goal setting suggests
that managers should ensure that
employees have hard, specific goals and
feedback on how well they’re doing in
pursuit of those goals.
Ensure that goals are perceived as attainable. Employees who
see goals as unattainable will reduce
their levels of effort.
Individualize rewards. Because employees have different
needs, what is a reward and reinforce to
one may not work for another.
Link rewards to performance by making rewards contingent on
desired levels of performance.
Check the system for equity. Employees should perceive that
the rewards or outcomes are equal to the
Don’t ignore money. The allocation of performance-based
increases, piecework bonuses, and other
pay incentives is important in
determining employee motivation.
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